Dark circles under the eyes are due to a variety of causes, and treatments are aimed at identifying the cause and formulating an appropriate treatment plan.
The three main causes of these dark circles are:
Poor Vascular Circulation
The skin around the eyes is the thinnest in the body about 0.5mm thick compared with 2 mm in other areas. When blood passes through the blood vessels close to the surface of the skin, if there is poor circulation in the area some of the red blood cells will be squeezed into the surrounding tissue where the haemoglobin that they carry is broken down by enzymes. The breakdown product of this haemoglobin has a blueish tint which can be seen under the eyes. This is usually an inherited trait, similar to varicose veins.
There are a variety of skin conditions which can lead to increased pigmentation in the skin around the eye area, all causing an increase in the pigment melanin around the eyes.
In people with a deep set bone structure, shadowing from the orbital ridges can lead to a dark shadow appearing under the eyes. This is usually a hereditary trait.
The different treatment options are focused on trying to treat the underlying causes. Treatment is based on treating the underlying causes which include correcting any volume depletion in the area as well initiating depigmenting treatments and performing topical skin treatments and contour realignment.